The Blessings & Rulings concerning Rains
From the great blessings of Allah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) is the blessing of rain. In it there is life for the earth and plants, life for animals, and life for mankind. These examples are all mentioned in the book of Allah.
“It is He who sends down rain from the sky; from it is drink and from it (grows) vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture. He causes to grow for you thereby the crops, olives, palm trees, grapevines, and from all the fruits. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who give thought.”
[Surah Nahl 16:10-11]
From these Ayat we learn that rain is a blessing and virtue from Allah. Attributing this blessing to other than Allah such as stars and seasons or even “mother nature” is a form of disbelief in this blessing and in the One who sent it. It is obligatory on the Muslim to attribute this blessing to Allah alone and to remember this whenever he sees the rain.
On the authority of Zaid bin Khalid (radhiAllah), he said, the Messenger of Allah led the Fajr prayer at Al-Hudaibiyyah after a rainfall during the night. At the conclusion of prayer, he turned towards the people and said, “Do you know what your Rabb has said?” They replied: “Allah and His Messenger know better.” Upon this he remarked, “He has said: ‘Some of My slaves have entered the morning as my believers and some as unbelievers. He who said: We have had a rainfall due to the Grace and Mercy of Allah, believes in Me and disbelieves in the stars; and he who said: We have had a rainfall due to the rising of such and such star, disbelieves in Me and affirms his faith in the stars.” [Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim]
Therefore it is Allah who is thanked and praised; it is He who sends down the rain. It is not sent down because summer has passed and rainy season has arrived. It is just a season, and Allah does whatever he wishes. Allah may or may not send down the rain at any time of the year as per His wish. When the Muslim witnesses the rainfall it should be a reason for the increase of his Iman (faith), turning to Allah, fearing Him, and thanking Him for the signs witnessed thereby of His existence and the great wisdom and benefits behind it.
Impermissibility of cursing the rain
It is impermissible to curse rain and the slave who does this is actually cursing the Creator whom sent it down and doubting His wisdom. The prohibition for cursing time and wind are authentic and rain comes under the same ruling.
Abu Huraira narrated that Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “None of you should say: ‘Woe be upon the Time’. For verily, Allah is the one who controls Time.”
It is recommended to make Duaa at the time of rain
Some of the Scholars consider it from the Sunnah to make Duaa at the time of Rain, and it is one of the times when duaa is accepted. In a hadeeth of Sahl ibn Sa’d that is attributed to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) that he said, “There are two which will not be rejected: du’aa’ at the time of adhaan and when it is raining.”
[Sunnan Abu Dawood, classed as Saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’ (3078)]
Permissibility of praying at homes in case of storm or heavy rains
Praying in congregation (Jamaah) is obligatory on every Muslim man. But it is a known from authentic ahadeeth and is a consensus of all scholars that when the rain is so heavy that it is not possible for a person to make it to the masjid, then it is permissible to pray at home. When the adhaan is made in masjid during such heavy rains, instead of saying ‘Hayya alas salaah’ (come to the prayer), the muaddhin can say ‘’as-Salaatu fee ad diyarkum” (pray in your homes). Similarly, Jumah is not obligatory in such a case. However, in modern day cities and towns, these conditions don’t arise often.
Combining the Prayers in the Masjid at the time of heavy rains
It is also recommended to combine the prayers in the masjid at the time of intense rains or when there is hardship in getting there. Ibn ‘Abbas reported the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) combined the Zuhr with Asr, and Maghrib with Isha in Medina without being in a state of danger or rainfall. [Sahih Muslim]
Again, with the modern day infrastructure, these conditions don’t occur often. But this hadith shows that it was known to the companions of the Messenger the permissibility of combining at the time of rain. There is no condition of the rain starting at the same time of the prayer in order to combine two prayers; rather we look at the overall condition of the weather. Also the Niyyah is also not a condition to combine two prayers. For example: A person enters the Masjid and was unaware that they were combining the prayers and he meets them at the second rakah, he can combine with them when they start the second prayer.
Allowing the rain to touch your body
Anas (radhiallah) narrated, “We were with Allah’s Messenger when rain fell upon us. Allah’s Messenger opened up his garment a bit so that the rain could touch his skin. We asked: “O Messenger of Allah, why do you do this?” He replied: “Because it just recently came from its Lord.” [Saheeh Muslim]
Duaa when the wind blows
Allaahumma ‘innee ‘as’aluka kthayrahaa, wa khayra maa feehaa, wa khayra maa ‘ursilat bihi wa a’oothu bika min sharrihaa, wa sharri maa feehaa, wa sharri maa ‘ursilat bihi.
Meaning: O Allaah, I ask You for the good of it, for the good of what it contains, and for the good of what is sent with it. I seek refuge in You from the evil of it, from the evil of what it contains, and from the evil that is sent with it.
[Saheeh Muslim 2/616, Saheeh Bukhari 4/76]
Allaahumma ‘innee ‘as’aluka khayrahaa, wa ‘a’oothu bika min sharrihaa.
Meaning: O Allaah, I ask You for the good of it and seek refuge in You against its evil.
[Abu Dawud 4/326, Ibn Majah 2/1228. See also Al-Albani, Sahih Ibn Mjjah 2/305]
Duaa when it thunders
Subhaanal-lathee yusabbihur-ra’du bihamdihi walmalaa’ikatu min kheefatihi.
Meaning: Glory is to Him Whom thunder and angels glorify due to fear of Him.
[Malik Muwatta 2/992]
Duaa when it rains
Allaahumma sayyiban naafi’an
Meaning: O Allaah, (bring) beneficial rain clouds.
[Saheeh Bukhari, cf. Al-Asqalani, Fathul-Bari 2/518]
Duaa after it rains
Mutirnaa bifadhlillaahi wa rahmatihi
Meaning: It has rained by the bounty of Allaah and His mercy.
[Saheeh Bukhari 1/205, Saheeh Muslim 1/83]
Duaa for the withholding of the rains
Allaahumma hawaalaynaa wa laa ‘alaynaa. Allaahumma ‘alal-‘aakaami wadh-dhiraabi, wa butoonil-‘awdiyati, wa manaabitish-shajari
Meaning: O Allaah, let it pass us and not fall upon us, but upon the hills and mountains, and the center of the valleys, and upon the forested lands.
[Saheeh Bukhari 1/224, Saheeh Muslim 1/614]