There are two Arabic words that are important to know for a discussion of Islamic monotheism. These are tawhid and shirk. Tawhid means “declaring God is one”, while shirk means “associating partners with God”. Thus tawhid is monotheism while shirk is to negate this by associating godly powers to others apart from God.
The Islamic scholars have defined three aspects to tawhid, each of which has several types of shirkthat negate it. Each of these will be discussed in turn.